## Description

During year 3, pupils develop automaticity in addition and subtraction facts within 20 (3NF–1), and learn to recall multiplication table facts and related division facts for the 10, 5, 2, 4 and 8 multiplication tables.

To be ready to progress to year 4, pupils must also be able to combine these facts with unitising in tens, including:

- scaling known additive facts within 10, for example, 90 − 60 = 30
- scaling known additive facts that bridge 10, for example, 80 + 60 = 140
- scaling known multiplication tables facts, for example, 30 x 4 = 120
- scaling division facts derived from multiplication tables, for example, 120 ÷ 4 = 30

For calculations such as 80 + 60 = 140, pupils can begin by using tens frames and counters as they did for calculation across 10 (2AS–1), but now using 10-value counters.

Similarly, pupils can use 10-value counters to understand how a known multiplicative fact, such as 3 x 5 = 15, relates to a scaled calculation, such as 3 x 50 = 150. Pupils should be able reason in terms of unitising in tens.

Language focus:

“3 times 5 is equal to 15.”

“3 times 5 tens is equal to 15 tens.”

“15 tens is equal to 150.”

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