Scaling Number Facts by 10 (3)

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During year 3, pupils develop automaticity in addition and subtraction facts within 20 (3NF–1), and learn to recall multiplication table facts and related division facts for the 10, 5, 2, 4 and 8 multiplication tables.

To be ready to progress to year 4, pupils must also be able to combine these facts with unitising in tens, including:

  • scaling known additive facts within 10, for example, 90 − 60 = 30
  • scaling known additive facts that bridge 10, for example, 80 + 60 = 140
  • scaling known multiplication tables facts, for example, 30 x 4 = 120
  • scaling division facts derived from multiplication tables, for example, 120 ÷ 4 = 30

For calculations such as 80 + 60 = 140, pupils can begin by using tens frames and counters as they did for calculation across 10 (2AS–1), but now using 10-value counters.

Similarly, pupils can use 10-value counters to understand how a known multiplicative fact, such as 3 x 5 = 15, relates to a scaled calculation, such as 3 x 50 = 150. Pupils should be able reason in terms of unitising in tens.

Language focus:

“3 times 5 is equal to 15.”

“3 times 5 tens is equal to 15 tens.”

“15 tens is equal to 150.”

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