Pupils need to be able to solve problems with missing addends using known number facts or calculation strategies, for example:
19 + = 25
Pupils need to be able to recognise problems about difference, and relate them to subtraction. For example, they should understand that they need to calculate 3 + = 5 or 5 – 3 = to solve the problem: There are 5 red cars and 3 blue cars. What is the difference between the number of red cars and blue cars?
Pupils should be able to recognise contextual problems involving finding a difference, phrased as ‘find the difference’, ‘how many more’ and ‘how many fewer’, such as those shown in the 2AS–2 below. Pupils may solve these problems by relating them to either a missing addend equation or to subtraction, applying known facts and strategies.